The first survey of the critical fortunes of seventeenth-century Dutch art, from 1700 to the present. Appreciated in the eighteenth century by amateurs and collectors, Dutch art during the Romantic age became a focus of ideological interest. From the late nineteenth century onwards, it became a subject of scholarly research, indeed one of the foundational fields of art history of the modern era. This study provides insight into the various artistic, literary, political, and philosophical approaches that Dutch painting has inspired over the ages. It also brings historical context to many issues that are still hotly debated by scholars.