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Galactic Astronomy (Princeton Series in Astrophysics) [Paperback]

James Binney , Michael Merrifield
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Table of Contents

Preface

1 Galaxies: an overview
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 A brief history of galactic astronomy 2
Photometric models of the Milky Way 5
The nature of the spiral nebulae 10
Kinematic models of the Milky Way 15
Stellar populations 20
More recent developments 21

2 Astronomical Measurements
2.1 Positions, motions and coordinate systems 27
The equatorial system 27
Galactic coordinates 30
Parallax 31
Proper motions 34
Precession and nutation 35
Astrometric systems 37
2.2 Distances determined from velocities 38
Radial velocities 39
Distances from the movingcluster method 40
Secular parallaxes 42
Statistical parallaxes 45
2.3 Magnitudes and colors 46
Apparent magnitudes 47
Colors 52
Absolute magnitudes 56
Absolute energy distributions
and bolometric magnitudes 58
Mass-to-light ratios 60
Surface brightness and isophotal radii 61
2.4 Gravitational lensing 62
2.5 Archival data and catalogs 67
On-line resources 71
Problems 74

3 The Properties of Stars
3.1 The masses of stars 76
The Mass of the Sun 77
Masses of binary stars 78
Visual binaries 78
Spectroscopic binaries 79
3.2 The radii of stars 82
Phase interferometry 82
Intensity interferometry 83
Speckle interferometry 83
Lunar occultations 84
Eclipsing binaries 84
Astrophysical estimates 86
3.3 Classification of stars 87
Novae 87
Pulsars 87
Classification of stellar spectra 88
The MK system 90
3.4 Physical interpretation of stellar spectra 94
3.5 Color-magnitude diagrams 102
Observed CM-diagrams 103
Luminosity and color as functions of spectral class 104
The physical properties of stars on the MS and RGB 109
3.6 The stellar luminosity function 109
Malmquist bias 111
Lutz-Kelker Bias 115
The general luminosity function 119
Cluster luminosity functions 119
Photometrically complete surveys 119
Proper-motion selected surveys 120
The luminosity function of a given MK spectral class 127
Catalogs of the nearby stars 130
3.7 Interstellar dust 131
Extinction and reddening 133
Reddening-free indices 138
Polarization of starlight by dust 140
Extinction of sightlines out of the Galaxy 140
Problems 143

4 Morphology of Galaxies
4.1 Morphological classification of galaxies 146
The Hubble sequence 149
Effects of environment 157
The galaxy luminosity function 162
The field galaxy luminosity function 162
The cluster galaxy luminosity function 165
The luminosity function divided by morphological type 167
The Local Group 169
4.2 Surface Photometry of Galaxies 172
The night sky 173
Effect of seeing 176
Deprojecting galaxy images 179
4.3 Photometry of Elliptical Galaxies 185
Radial surface-brightness profiles of elliptical galaxies 185
cD galaxies 186
Dwarf elliptical galaxies 190
Centers of elliptical galaxies 191
Color and line-strength gradients in elliptical galaxies 193
Shapes of elliptical galaxies 194
Ellipticity 194
Deviations from ellipses 199
Fine structure 201
Correlations among global parameters of elliptical galaxies 204
The Dn - [Sigma]0 correlation 209
Dwarf elliptical galaxies 209
4.4 Photometry of Disk Galaxies 210
Photometric effects of dust 211
Overall shapes of disk galaxies 212
Bulge-disk decomposition 214
Shapes of bulges 222
Color and metallicity gradients in disk galaxies 223
Spiral structure in disk galaxies 224
Barred galaxies 228
Vertical structure of bars 231
Rings in SB galaxies 233
Dust lanes in SB galaxies 234
Lop-sidedness in SB galaxies 234
4.5 Globular cluster systems 235
Globular cluster luminosity function 236
Specific frequency of globular clusters 237
Radial density profiles and shapes 238
Color distributions 239
4.6 Abnormal galaxies 241
Starbursting systems 241
Systems with active galactic nuclei 244
Host galaxies of AGN 250
The unified model of AGN 251
Problems 255

5 Evolution of Stars and Stellar Populations
5.1 Stellar evolution and the CM diagram 259
Placing models in the CM diagram 262
Features in the CM diagram 263
Characteristic initial masses 267
Bounding curves in the CM diagram 274
Dependence of CM diagrams upon metallicity 276
The cosmic helium abundance 279
Simple numerical relations 279
Star formation 281
The initial mass function 283
Pulsating stars 287
Classical Cepheid variables 289
Mira variables 292
W Virginis stars 293
RR Lyrae stars 293
5.2 Synthesis of the chemical elements 296
Basic nuclear physics 296
Metal production at Mi < Mup 301
Supernovae 302
Metal production by core-collapse supernovae 303
Metal production by type Ia supernovae 305
5.3 Models of chemical enrichment 306
The closed-box model 306
The leaky-box model 308
The accreting-box model 313
5.4 Evolution of stellar populations 314
Analytical results 315
Numerical models of population evolution 317
Problems 324

6 Star clusters
6.1 Globular clusters 327
Globular cluster stellar photometry 332
Color-magnitude diagrams 334
The main sequence and subgiant branch 335
The horizontal branch 337
Comparison with Theoretical CM diagrams 339
Globular cluster ages 344
Turnoff point ages 344
Isochrone fitting 345
The [Delta]V method 346
The [Delta](B-V) 347
Comparison with the age of the Universe 348
Variations in age 349
Metallicities of globular clusters 350
[Omega] Cen 351
The third parameter problem 352
Variations in helium abundance 353
Variations in other element abundances 353
Other candidates 354
Luminosity functions 354
Binary stars 359
Stellar remnants 361
White dwarfs 361
Neutron stars 362
Radial profiles 363
Large-scale properties 365
Luminosity segregation 367
Central cusps 369
Kinematics 371
Velocities of individual stars 371
Integrated-light kinematics 374
Proper motions 375
6.2 Open clusters 377
Color-magnitude diagrams 381
The ages and demise of open clusters 384
Structure and kinematics 386
Luminosity function 389
Problems 392

7 The Cosmic Distance Scale
7.1 An introduction to cosmology 396
7.2 Absolute distance estimators 399
The Baade-Wesselink method 399
Application to supernovae 402
The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect 403
Distances from time delays 405
The ring around Supernova 1987A 406
Gravitational lens time delays 407
Water-maser proper-motions by VLBI 410
7.3 Relative distance estimators 414
Luminosities of variable stars 415
Luminosity functions 415
Globular clusters 416
Planetary nebulae 417
Novae and supernovae 419
Novae 419
Type Ia supernovae 420
Distances from galaxy kinematics 422
Spiral galaxies 422
Elliptical galaxies 425
Surface brightness fluctuations 426
7.4 Results 429
Distances within the Local Group 432
Distance to the Galactic center 432
Distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud 434
Distance to M31 435
Distances beyond the Local Group 437
Distance to the Virgo Cluster 437
Peculiar velocity field 439
The asymptotic Hubble constant 441
The deceleration parameter and cosmic density 444
Standard candles and rulers 444
Peculiar velocity field 447
Problems 449

8 The Interstellar Media of Galaxies
8.1 How interstellar matter is detected 452
Absorption of starlight 452
Extreme UV and Xray observations 459
Optical emission lines 463
Hydrogen lines 463
Metal lines 464
Radio observations 468
The 21-cm line of atomic hydrogen 471
Rotation transitions of heteronuclear molecules 474
Synchrotron radiation 478
Radio-frequency bremsstrahlung and recombination lines 480
Dispersion and Rotation Measures 481
Gamma-ray emission 482
Radiation by dust 483
8.2 The ISM in Disk Galaxies 488
Global measures 493
HI and H2 in disk galaxies 493
Radio-continuum and IR luminosities 496
Radial density profiles 498
Azimuthal distributions 500
Bars and oval distortions 500
Spiral structure 500
Lop-sidedness 502
Velocity fields of disks 505
Circular-speed curves 507
Kinematic warps 510
Oval distortions 512
S0 galaxies 513
Metallicities of disk galaxies 516
Magnetic fields 520
Star formation in disk galaxies 522
8.3 The ISM in elliptical galaxies 525
X-ray emitting plasma 525
Cool gas in ellipticals 527
8.4 Intergalactic gas 530
The Magellanic Stream 530
Problems 533

9 The Milky Way's ISM
9.1 The kinematics of differential rotation 536
The naive (l,v) plot 536
Radii and distances from the (l,v) plot 540
Non-circular motion and the (l,v) plot 541
Axisymmetric expansion 541
Oval distortions 542
Spiral structure 544
Random motions 546
9.2 The large-scale distribution of HI and CO 549
The 21-cm line in emission 549
Measuring the spin temperature 553
CO lines in emission 554
The Milky Way's circular-speed curve 555
Radial distributions of HI and CO 559
Evidence for spiral structure 561
Vertical distributions of HI and CO 562
The middle disk 563
The outer disk 565
9.3 Other tracers of the ISM 570
Diffuse infrared emission 570
Pulsars and the Galactic magnetic field 574
Diffuse H[Alpha] radiation 576
Diffuse synchrotron and Gamma-radiation 577
Diffuse X-rays 579
9.4 The central disk 580
21-cm observations 580
Observations in lines of CO and CS 586
A dynamical model of the central disk 588
9.5 The nucleus 594
9.6 Small-scale structure of the ISM 597
Molecular gas in the Galaxy 598
X from virial masses 601
X from Gamma-rays 601
X from Av 602
Problems 603

10 Components of the Milky Way
10.1 Gross Structure from Surface Photometry 609
The Galaxy at optical wavelengths 614
10.2 The bulge 616
Integrated surface photometry 616
Evidence for a bar from individual stars 619
Age and metallicity of the bulge 621
Bulge kinematics 622
10.3 Kinematics of stars near the Sun 624
The solar motion 624
Random velocities of stars 629
Vertex deviation 630
The Schwarzschild distribution 632
Star streams 634
Causes of vertex deviation 636
The Oort constants 637
Estimating the Oort constants 641
10.4 The structure of the stellar disk 643
Ages and metallicities of nearby stars 643
Correlations between abundances 643
Correlations between age and abundance 644
The old disk clusters 651
Star counts and the thick disk 651
The thick disk 654
The local mass density of the disk 656
Distribution of the youngest stars 664
10.5 The halo 666
The globular cluster system 666
Field halo stars 670
Kinematically selected samples 673
10.6 Galaxy models 678
The local circular speed 679
Mass models 680
Starcount models 682
Kinematic models 683
Dynamical models 683
10.7 Formation and evolution of the Milky Way 684
Formation scenarios 684
Models of the chemical evolution of the Milky Way 688
Chemical evolution of the halo 688
Pre-enrichment 688
Problems 690

11 Stellar Kinematics in External Galaxies
11.1 Measuring the kinematics of external galaxies 694
Mean velocities and velocity dispersions 697
Analysis of line profiles 700
Position-velocity diagrams and data cubes 705
11.2 The stellar kinematics of elliptical galaxies 707
Large-scale properties 707
Major-axis kinematics 707
Detection of dark halos 712
Kinematic mapping 713
Core properties 716
Decoupled cores 716
Detection of central black holes 717
11.3 The stellar kinematics of disk galaxies 722
Bulge kinematics 723
Disk kinematics 724
Rotational motion 725
Random motions 727
Problems 730

Appendices
A. Gravitational deflection of light 732
B. Important astronomical catalogs 736
C. Richardson-Lucy deconvolution 743
D. Useful numbers 744

References
Index

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