A concise history of the development and practice of Egyptian medicine and its related subjects. It examines the images which are carved and painted on the walls of tombs, represented in statues, in the hieroglyphs and in the papyri and offers and explanation of the types of representation which show obvious disease and deformity. The application of modern scientific methodlogy to palaeopathology and palaeopidemiology has given Egyptologists and medical historians a greater understanding of the interaction between human disease and the contemporary environment. An overview of modern scientific studies is included along with specific case studies detailing evidence of disease. The Egyptians knew and used at least one-third of all the medicinal plants listed in modern pharmacopoeias and the constituents and efficacy of the pharmacists' remedies are examined. A brief overview of the medical papyri and medical inscriptions is included. These provide further poignant insights into the Egyptian medical practioner's understanding of anatomy and physiology.