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A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Sentence Patterns (Kodansha Dictionaries) [Paperback]

Naoko Chino
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Book Description

29 Aug 2000 4770026080 978-4770026088
Includes fifty of the most common basic patterns, sixty-nine variations of the basic patterns, formulas delineating basic pattern structure, definitions of the terms used and much more, make this a comprehensive and informative guide that will improve your Japanese.


Product details

  • Paperback: 309 pages
  • Publisher: Kodansha International Ltd (29 Aug 2000)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 4770026080
  • ISBN-13: 978-4770026088
  • Product Dimensions: 18.2 x 13 x 2.2 cm
  • Average Customer Review: 5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (6 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: 414,284 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
  • See Complete Table of Contents

Product Description

About the Author

NAOKO CHINO is a lecturer at Sophia University, Tokyo, and the author of All About Particles and Japanese Verbs at a Glance.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Preface
[slightly abridged; X's represent Japanese script, and asterisks bound words that underlined in the original]

The purpose of this dictionary is to help students gain a better grasp of the basic sentence patterns of the Japanese language, either by refreshing their knowledge of what has been learned in the past or by acquainting themselves with new patterns. The dictionary contains fifty basic patterns and explains and exemplifies them through example sentences. When there are variations on these basic patterns, they are also explained and exemplified. The book can be used purely for reference or it can be read profitably from beginning to end as a textbook. The latter method has the benefit of fixing the patterns in the student's mind by means of repetition.

There are three basic types of Japanese sentences that form the basis for the entire language; all the other sentence patterns and variations contained in this dictionary are based on one or another of these three. Once the student has become completely familiar with these patterns, the other patterns and variations based upon them should not be difficult to pick up. These three basic sentence patterns are as follows:

---The Three Basic Sentence Patterns

Noun Sentence
Adjective Sentence
Verb Sentence

In a noun sentence, it is the noun at the end of the sentence, followed by desu in polite usage, that provides information about the subject. In the following example, book tells you what this is; that is, book is acting as the predicate, providing information about the subject.

XXXXXXXXXXX
Kore wa *hon* desu.
This is a* book*.

In an adjective sentence, the part of the sentence providing information about the subject ("he") is an adjective (followed by desu in polite usage).

XXXXXXXXXXX
Kare wa *wakai* desu.
He is *young*.

In a verb sentence, the part of speech providing information about the subject ("she") is a verb.

XXXXXXXXXXX
Kanojo wa *tabemasu*.
She *eats*. / She will *eat*.

Noun and adjective sentences are dealt with in Part 1; verb sentences in Part 2. All patterns are exemplified in polite and informal usage, sometimes in language that is characteristic of either male or female speech. Using the sentences above, polite and formal usage might be exemplified as follows:

---Noun Sentence
- Polite
XXXXXXXXXXX
Kore wa hon desu.

- Informal
XXXXXXXXXXX
Kore wa hon (da).

In the case of informal adjective sentences, na-adjectives (see Basic Pattern 2) are optionally followed by da but i-adjectives, as in the following example, are not.

---Adjective Sentence
- Polite
XXXXXXXXXXX
Kare wa wakai desu.

- Informal
XXXXXXXXXXX
Kare wa wakai.

In a verb sentence, polite usage calls for the masu form of the verb, while informal usage calls for the plain form. (See the Verb Conjugation Chart at the back of the book for examples of both.)

---Verb Sentence
- Polite
XXXXXXXXXXX
Kanojo wa tabemasu.

- Informal
XXXXXXXXXXX
Kanojo wa taberu.

Informal usage is usually not given in books like the present one. By providing it as a point of reference, even though commentary is limited owing to space considerations, we hope that students who come in contact with it in daily life or in their reading will find its inclusion here of some help.

Another feature of this dictionary is the use of a "formula" to provide information on the structure of the basic pattern under consideration. For example, the formula of the sentence XXXXXXXXXXX (Kare wa Nihon-jin desu) would be appear as follows:

- Formula
*N1* wa *N2* desu.
N1 = a noun acting as a subject
N2 = a noun providing information about the subject

Students who have some familiarity with the basics of Japanese can refer to these formulas to reinforce their understanding or check areas they are unsure of. By inserting their own words in the underlined slots indicating parts of speech, students can expand their range of expression. For example, by placing watashi ("I") in the N1 slot and various other nouns concerning oneself in the N2 slot (e.g., name, nationality, occupation), students can easily create sentences that could serve as a self-introduction.

XXXXXXXXXXX
*Watashi* wa *Tanaka* desu.
I'm Mr. Tanaka.

XXXXXXXXXXX
*Watashi* wa *Amerika-jin* desu.
I'm an American.

XXXXXXXXXXX
*Watashi* wa *ginko-in* desu.
I'm a bank employee.

Students who are just starting out in their study of Japanese might try the following: find in this dictionary the basic sentence you are studying in your school textbook, read the explanation, and then substitute words for the underlined elements so that you create a sentence that expresses what you wish to say. By using even one basic pattern, you can create a variety of sentences.

The conjugation of verbs has not been discussed in this book because that topic would take up entirely too much space. However, I have covered verbs in my Japanese Verbs at a Glance. Please refer to that book if you need help with conjugation. This dictionary does contain, however, charts at the end to be used as quick-reference guides to verb conjugation and adjective inflection. Students who need help with particles might refer to my All about Particles.

While the basic patterns in this book are not comprehensive in their coverage, they do represent many of the most common patterns. In fact, all of the patterns needed for passing levels 3 and 4 of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test are included. Moreover, many of the basic patterns have variations that also receive individual treatment in this dictionary. Among the patterns not included, such as past tense variations, some have been intentionally excluded because they can be easily surmised from the given patterns.

Finally, the student should check the section entitled "Abbreviations and Definitions" before proceeding to the main text....


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Most Helpful Customer Reviews
34 of 35 people found the following review helpful
Format:Paperback
This book was recommended ( and actually bought for me ) by a Japanese friend who is a trained teacher of Japanese for English-speaking students. This was chosen for use as a first introduction to Japanese and I have found it most effective.The book presents the main patterns of Japanese sentences and represents them in terms of a number of formulae which aid memorising.
The book presents the basic structures of 50 key sentences. Offers examples of their usage as well as giving examples of informal ( conversational )usage which derive from the given examples.
The book has useful pointers to other resources for developing competence in the language.I expect ,in particular, to utilise other books by the same author.I whole-heartedly recommend this book for those requiring an entry-level text.
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11 of 11 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Concise reference text 2 July 2004
Format:Paperback|Verified Purchase
This dictionary provides a good refernce for someone who has already learnt some Japanese and is familiar with the script, although it does have Romaji help too.
The examples are good and varied in polite and plain forms as well as occassional experssions used only between specific types of people e.g. women, business colleagues, children.
This is not however a good text to start learning Japanese.
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3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Good learning tool 5 Mar 2010
Format:Paperback|Verified Purchase
Good if you need to be constantly reminded of sentences, and like to be led on a line by line / day by day basis. I tend to use this in conjunction with my iPhone learning apps.
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