Zygmunt Klukowski was a phsycian, surgeon and supervisor at Zamosc County Hospital in Szczebrzeszyn, Poland, when the Germans invaded his country. A veteran of World War I, the Russian Civil War, and the Polish-Russian War of 1920-21, he was also respected as a historian. From 1939 to 1944 he kept a detailed secret journal, making entries daily at first and then, near the end of the occupation, even more frequently. His observations range from matter-of-fact anticipation of war in 1939 to information about his own and other Poles' underground activities. As a whole, the entries reveal his growing recognition that the Nazis intended to destroy Polish culture and all those who had been its bearers. When originally published in Polish, the diary won a major award and soon went into a second edition. Here, translated by his son and edited by his grandchildren, Klukowski's diary provides a rare picture of how non-combatants coped with life in German-occupied eastern Poland.