This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 21st international conference on domain decomposition methods in science and engineering held in Rennes, France, June 25-29, 2012. Domain decomposition is an active and interdisciplinary research discipline, focusing on the development, analysis and implementation of numerical methods for massively parallel computers. Domain decomposition methods are among the most efficient solvers for large scale applications in science and engineering. They are based on a solid theoretical foundation and shown to be scalable for many important applications. Domain decomposition techniques can also naturally take into account multiscale phenomena. This book contains the most recent results in this important field of research, both mathematically and algorithmically and allows the reader to get an overview of this exciting branch of numerical analysis and scientific computing.