This is one of the great classics, richly illustrated with over 200 woodcuts, most full page. It was published in 1556 by Georgius Agricola. The English translation is by former U.S. President Herbert Hoover, and first Lady Lou. Virtually all of the equipment illustrated was current until a few decades ago. Agricola describes and illustrates such "modern" methods as amalgamation, and the use of spiral inclines for transporting heavy equipment from the surface to underground. The (unnamed) "books" (chapters) which compose the book could be titled: 1 The Social Impact of Mining; 2 Mine Management, Exploration, and Prospecting; 3 The Theory of Ore Deposits; 4 Mining Law; 5 Shaft Sinking, Drifting, and Surveying; 6 Mining Equipment, Haulage, Dewatering, Ventilation, and Hazards; 7: Assaying; 8 Beneficiation; 9 Smelting; 10 Separation of Gold from Silver and Silver Refining; 11 Separation of Gold and Silver from Copper and Iron and Copper Refining; 12 Industrial Mineral, Chemical, and Glass Production. The text is a bit dense, but is worth the trouble.