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Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition [Paperback]

Geert Hofstede , Gert Jan Hofstede , Michael Minkov
4.3 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (9 customer reviews)
RRP: 18.99
Price: 16.09 & FREE Delivery in the UK. Details
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Book Description

1 Jun 2010

The revolutionary study of how the place where wegrew up shapes the way we think, feel, and act--with new dimensions and perspectives

Based on research conducted in more than seventy countries over a forty-year span,Cultures and Organizations examines what drives people apart—when cooperationis so clearly in everyone’s interest. With major new contributions from MichaelMinkov’s analysis of data from the World Values Survey, as well as an account ofthe evolution of cultures by Gert Jan Hofstede, this revised and expanded edition:

  • Reveals the “moral circles” from which national societiesare built and the unexamined rules by which people think,feel, and act
  • Explores how national cultures differ in the areas of inequality,assertiveness versus modesty, and tolerance for ambiguity
  • Explains how organizational cultures differ from nationalcultures—and how they can be managed
  • Analyzes stereotyping, differences in language, cultural rootsof the 2008 economic crisis, and other intercultural dynamics

Frequently Bought Together

Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition + Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business - revised and updated third edition: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business + When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures (Third Edition): Leading, Teamworking and Managing Across the Globe
Price For All Three: 49.08

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Product details

  • Paperback: 576 pages
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional; 3 edition (1 Jun 2010)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0071664181
  • ISBN-13: 978-0071664189
  • Product Dimensions: 5.9 x 8.9 x 1.4 cm
  • Average Customer Review: 4.3 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (9 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: 78,263 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

Product Description


'An understanding of other cultures is essential if we are to develop a more stable world and at the same time create national wealth.'Brian Burrows, Futures Information Associates --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

From the Back Cover

People of other countries, of another generation, social class, job or organisation, often think and act in ways that puzzle us. To these people, of course, we are the ones who behave in a surprising manner. What separates them from us is the culture in which either of us grew up. 'Culture' in this sense is not the same as 'civilisation'; it encompasses much more. Deeply-rooted and, therefore, often unconscious values lead us to consider as normal what others think abnormal, as polite what to others is rude, and as rational what others find irrational.

Geert Hofstede shows that national cultures differ along five dimensions:

The degree of integration of individuals within groups

Differences in the social roles of women versus men

Ways of dealing with inequality

The degree of tolerance for the unknown

The trade-off between long-term and short-term gratification of needs

Organisational cultures, however, are a different phenomenon; they do not follow the same dimensions, are more manageable, and in fact offer an opportunity to bridge national cultures. Following twenty-five years of research into multinational companies, Geert Hofstede reveals the circumstances in which organisational cultures can be managed effectively, and outlines ways of learning intercultural communication which are essential to success in the 1990s and beyond.

"An understanding of other cultures is essential if we are to develop a more stable world and at the same time create national wealth"
'Futures Information Associates'

--This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Inside This Book (Learn More)
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Customer Reviews

4.3 out of 5 stars
4.3 out of 5 stars
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars nice and simple 11 May 2013
By Sam
This is a good book if you're looking for an easy-to-use guide to inter-cultural working. Hofstede's research is the most well known, and probably the easiest to use, cultural framework but there are a number of issues you need to bear in mind if you're looking at this from an academic perspective. His research has been empirically challenged several times and there are sometimes deep flaws in his reasoning. A simple google search will bring up a number of scholarly articles criticising the framework. Overall, three stars because it's easy to read and straightforward but, from an academic perspective, there are deep flaws that aren't acknowledged.
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
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In the empirical tradition, this book describes dimensions elucidated through an empirical study - in this case the statistical analysis of items (from questionnaires or workshops, sorry I can't remember). The point being that the authors have used correlations of the degree of agreement between people of different nations to a set of statements, to "shake out" the dimensions they describe.

That is, they didn't start with theory, propose dimensions that they believe to exist, and then test those through the measurement of empirical data, they let the data throw out the dimensions. There's lots of Social Science research methodology literature that discusses this point (in general) in detail.

Back to this book, and to the dimensions: from my own cross-cultural experience (being a Brit living in France), showing a difference between our nations in the dimensions of Uncertainty Avoidance (colloquially "Fear of the Unknown") and Power Distance, gave my "Anglo-Saxon" mind some comfort that the frustrations I felt at the time were not all in my mind. The discussion around these points allow one to put those "lost" feelings into perspective.

I only stop short of giving the book 5 stars because for a book that's manifesto is to improve cultural understanding, I feel that more care should have been taken not to explain the dimensions from a northern-european (similar to "Anglo-Saxon" (how I detest that term!)) standpoint. For example, there's a statement that goes somewhere along the lines of saying that in certain cultures not losing time (in getting from A to B in a car, i.e. driving fast) is considered more important than human life. (Had the authors really evaluated the value of human life in the country in question?
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars a Theory of culture 23 Mar 2013
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My only qualification in this field is that I lived for 12 years abroad (of France), but I have never studied, nor been really interested in sociology. This book present a very clear and convincing taxonomy of cultures along 5 dimensions : weight of hierarchy, individualism vs collectivism, masculine values vs femine, fear of uncertainity, short term vs long term. These dimensions seem to be meaningful. A posteriori, I could understand and evaluate the behavior in countries I lived in. I used it in a conference and people were interested and quick to get the feeling of what was behind.
I would recommand it as a first book for comparing culture and national ways of manage, lived, behave. (I do not know any second book for the time being!)
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This is a great book for anyone who wants to gain some understanding of what lies behind the different behaviour we can see when we work with people from around the world. It's helpful, clear and a pleasure to read.
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I highly recommend it to those who are interested in the organisational culture .. compared to different books, the author put excellent materials in this book ..
very valuable..
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