An examination of the determination of the concept of enlightenment, and related notions, within modern social relations. The work opens up innovative areas of research into the relationship between philosophy, social relations, and education. It applies Gillian Rose's work on "the broken middle" of Hegelian philosophy to social and educational theorizing. It offers a critique of the idea of enlightenment, and of the identity of the teacher in social theory - Rousseau, Marx and Durkheim - in critical theory - Habermas and Adorno - in "postmodernism" - Foucalt and Nietzsche - and in a variety of educational and pedagogical theories. The book concludes with an original application of Hegelian speculative philosophy to the teacher/student relationship. This work challenges those working in social theory and in education to comprehend the contradictions on their theorising as a shared philosophical consciousness, a shared "broken middle".