1. Introduction; Part I. Questions of Interpretation: 2. Sections 3 and 4 HRA: the early case-law; 3. Interpretation after Ghaidan v. Mendoza; 4. Section 3(1) as a strong presumption of statutory interpretation; 5. The interplay between s.3 and s.4; 6. The duty of the courts under s.2(1); Part II. Questions of Deference: 7. The nature and grounds of judicial deference; 8. Deference in particular contexts; 9. Proportionality and deference under the Human Rights Act; Part III. Questions of Constitutional Status and Legitimacy: 10. The nature and status of the HRA; 11. Parliamentary sovereignty and the HRA; 12. Justifying constitutional review; 13. Constitutional review and participatory democracy; 14. Conclusion.