The CSP approach has been widely used in the specification, analysis and verification of concurrent and real–time systems, and for understanding the particular issues that can arise when concurrency is present. It provides a language which enables specifications and designs to be clearly expressed and understood, together with a supporting theory which allows them to be analyzed and shown to be correct. This book supports advanced level courses on concurrency covering timed and untimed CSP. The first half introduces the language of CSP, the primary semantic models (traces, failures, divergences and infinite traces), and their use in the modelling, analysis and verification of concurrent systems. The second half of the book introduces time into the language, brings in the timed semantic model (timed failures) and finally presents the theory of timewise refinement which links the two halves together. Accompanying website: http://www.cs.rhbnc.ac.uk/books/concurrency Containing the following: –Exercises and solutions –Instructors resources – Example CSP programs to run on FDR and ProBe –Links to useful sites Partial Contents: Part I: The Language of CSP; Sequential Processes; Concurrency; Abstraction and Control Flow; Part II: Analyzing Processes; Traces; Specification and Verification with Traces; Stable Failures; Specification and Verification with Failures; Failures, Divergences, and Infinite Traces; Part III: Introducing Time; The Timed Language; Timed transition systems; Part IV: Timed Analysis; Semantics of Timed CSP; Timed Specification and Verification; Timewise Refinement; Appendix A: Event–based Time; A.1 Standard CSP and $tock$; A.2 Translating from Timed CSP; A.3 Notes; Appendix B: Model–checking with FDR; B.1 Interacting with FDR; B.2 How FDR Checks Refinement; B.3 Machine readable CSP; Index of Processes.