1999, paper covers, 64 pages, illus, maps & plans.
Located at the mouth of Manila Bay, Fort Drum on El Fraile Island is unique in the development of United States coastal fortifications. Fort Drum is part of a chain of forts built across the entrance of Manila Bay in the Philippines to defend Manila from naval attack. The construction of Fort Drum began in 1909 by reducing tiny El Fraile Island to the low-water mark. Over the next ten years a multi-deck concrete island was built to mount two twin 14-inch guns in superimposed armored turrets.
The completed work rises 40 feet above sea level, while the fort is 350 feet long and 144 feet at its widest point. The exterior walls are up to 28 feet thick and the top deck attains a thickness of 20 feet. The interior of the fort held a large engine room, powder and shell rooms, mining casemate, storerooms and tankage, plotting rooms, and accommodations for 300 personnel. The design of Fort Drum followed a naval pattern with turrets, a caged mast, and secondary armament in side casemates. Due to these characteristics, Fort Drum became known as the "Concrete Battleship"
This revised and enlarged volume tells the story of the "Concrete Battleship" from its inception to the present day.