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Charles O Brien is Assistant Professor of Film Studies at Carleton University in Ottawa. He is co-translator (with Nell Andrew) of Francesco Casetti s Inside the Gaze: The Fiction Film and Its Spectator (IUP, 1998)."
The conversion to sound cinema is commonly characterized as a homogenizing process that quickly and significantly reduced the cinema's diversity of film styles and practices. Read the first page
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review from Choice (sept. 2005)21 Oct 2005
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From Choice (Sept. 2005):
PN1995 2004-9891 CIP
O'Brien, Charles. Cinema's conversion to sound: technology and film style in France and the U.S. Indiana , 2005. 200p filmography index afp ISBN 0-253-34463-8, $45.00; ISBN 0-253-21720-2 pbk, $19.95 . Reviewed in 2005sep CHOICE.
Taking on the familiar (and standard) notion that cinema's conversion to synchronous sound homogenized film production in the early 1930s, O'Brien (Carleton Univ., Canada) builds a fresh and cogent case for differences of film style across international borders. The author juxtaposes French and American filmmaking aesthetics and practices, carefully revealing how particular sound systems (e.g., magnetic and optical) and alternative models evolved in diverse national settings. Certainly US hegemony set forth models for emulation, but innovative work came from directors like René (Rene) Clair, Jean Vigo, and Jean Renoir. Out of technical and economic necessity, French cinema demonstrated a marked preference for direct sound (in contrast to the Italian cinema's reliance on postsynchronization). O'Brien chooses case studies--e.g., the popular Pathé-Natan (Pathe-Natan) in its Joinville studios--to examine the level of Hollywood indigenization and standardization on a global production company's own "house style." Both technical and artistic decisions differed from country to country, and image and sound became unique cultural expressions that changed through various periods, such as in the postwar auteur practices. Writing in an unassuming, conversational, yet scholarly style, O'Brien is lucid and thoughtful, and he offers numerous significant insights. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All collections; all levels. -- T. Lindvall, Duke University School of Divinity