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The Viazma Catastrophe, 1941. The Red Army's Disastrous Stand against Operation Typhoon. [Illustrated] [Hardcover]

Lev Lopukhovsky
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Book Description

15 Jun 2013
This book describes one of the most terrible tragedies of the Second World War and the events preceding it. The horrible miscalculations made by the Stavka of the Soviet Supreme High Command and the Front commands led in October 1941 to the deaths and imprisonment of hundreds of thousands of their own people. Until recently, the magnitude of the defeats suffered by the Red Army at Viaz'ma and Briansk were simply kept hushed up. For the first time, in this book a full picture of the combat operations that led to this tragedy are laid out in detail, using previously unknown or little-used documents. The author was driven to write this book after his long years of fruitless search to learn what happened to his father Colonel N.I. Lopukhovsky, the commander of the 120th Howitzer Artillery Regiment, who disappeared together with his unit in the maelstrom of Operation Typhoon. He became determined to break the official silence surrounding the military disaster on the approaches to Moscow in the autumn of 1941. In the present edition, the author additionally introduces documents from German military archives, which will doubtlessly interest not only scholars, but also students of the Eastern Front of the Second World War. Lopukhovsky substantiates his position on the matter of the true extent of the losses of the Red Army in men and equipment, which greatly exceeded the official data. In the Epilogue, he briefly discusses the searches he has conducted with the aim of revealing the circumstances surrounding the deaths of Soviet soldiers, who to this point have been listed among the missing-in-action - including his own father. The narrative is enhanced by numerous photographs, colour maps and tables. Nominated for the NYMAS Arthur Goodzeit Book Award 2013.

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The Viazma Catastrophe, 1941. The Red Army's Disastrous Stand against Operation Typhoon. + The Rzhev Slaughterhouse. The Red Army's Forgotten 15-month Campaign against Army Group Center, 1942-1943. + Operation Typhoon: Hitler's March on Moscow, October 1941
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Product details

  • Hardcover: 576 pages
  • Publisher: Helion & Company (15 Jun 2013)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1908916508
  • ISBN-13: 978-1908916501
  • Product Dimensions: 23.9 x 16.5 x 4.1 cm
  • Average Customer Review: 5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: 326,620 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

Product Description

Review

Viazma was the nadir of the Red Armys performance during Operation Barbarossa. Lopukhovskys painstaking research in hitherto unavailable archival sources exposes weaknesses from the high command to the rifle platoons. The author demonstrates as well the structural weaknesses that underlay the USSRs military shortcomings, and he memorializes the soldiers whose blood paid for errors too long obscured by neglect and cover-ups. --Dennis Showalter, Colorado College, author of Armor and Blood: The Battle of Kursk, The Turning Point of World War II

Lopukhovskys account of the battle of Viazma is masterful. The sheer detail and expert analysis reflects the 41 years he spent researching and writing it. --David Stahel, author of Operation Typhoon: Hitler s March on Moscow, October 1941 and Kiev 1941

The level of detail is staggering and the accompanying maps and tables add a degree of clarity rarely enjoyed in a book of this complexity. Stuart Britton who has undertaken the translation of this book from its original Russian is to be commended for another outstanding endeavour… an outstanding book and a highly recommended addition to those seeking to expand their understanding of the challenges that the Soviet's struggled with in trying to contain the German Typhoon of 1941. It is a sobering and humbling rendition of the sacrifice of the Russian soldier and the dysfunction of their leadership. --Global War Studies

The level of detail is staggering and the accompanying maps and tables add a degree of clarity rarely enjoyed in a book of this complexity. Stuart Britton who has undertaken the translation of this book from its original Russian is to be commended for another outstanding endeavour… an outstanding book and a highly recommended addition to those seeking to expand their understanding of the challenges that the Soviet's struggled with in trying to contain the German Typhoon of 1941. It is a sobering and humbling rendition of the sacrifice of the Russian soldier and the dysfunction of their leadership. --Global War Studies

This gem of a book, a detailed and accurate exposé of what actually took place at Viaz ma, is the product of a prolonged struggle to overcome Soviet censorship. The results is a graphic, balanced, accurate, and sometimes poignant study of the long-concealed October tragedy at Viaz ma ... Finally provides essential details about one of the longest lasting blank chapters in the record of the 20th century s most brutal and costly war. It is a must read for those interested in the Soviet-German War, in particular, and military history in general. --The Russian Review

About the Author

Lev Nikolaevich Lopukhovsky graduated from the prestigious Frunze Military Academy in 1962 and spent the next ten years serving in the Soviet Union's Strategic Rocket forces, rising to the rank of colonel and a regiment commander, before transferring to a teaching position in the Frunze Military Academy in 1972 due to health reasons. Lopukhovsky is a professor with the Russian Federation's Academy of Military Sciences (2008), and has been a member of Russia's Union of Journalists since 2004. Since 1989 he has been engaged in the search for those defenders of the Fatherland who went missing-in-action in the Second World War, including his own father Colonel N.I. Lopukhovsky, who is now known to have been killed while breaking out of encirclement in October 1941. Motivated by his father's disappearance, he had previously taken up the intense study of the Viaz'ma defensive operation and wrote the initial manuscript of the present book. In 1980 this manuscript was rejected by military censors, because it contradicted official views. Lopukhovsky is the author of several other books about the war, including Prokhorovka bez grifa sekretnosti [Prokhorovka without the seal of secrecy] (2005), Pervye dni voiny [First days of the war] (2007) and is the co-author of Iiun' 1941: Zaprogrammirovannoe porazhenie [June 1941: A Programmed Defeat] (2010). For his active search work, he was awarded the civilian Order of the Silver Star. Stuart Britton is a freelance translator and editor residing in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. He has been responsible for making a growing number of Russian titles available to readers of the English language, consisting primarily of memoirs by Red Army veterans and recent historical research concerning the Eastern Front of the Second World War and Soviet air operations in the Korean War. Notable recent titles include Valeriy Zamulin's award-winning 'Demolishing the Myth: The Tank Battle at Prokhorovka, Kursk, July 1943: An Operational Narrative ' (Helion, 2011), Boris Gorbachevsky's 'Through the Maelstrom: A Red Army Soldier's War on the Eastern Front 1942-45' (University Press of Kansas, 2008) and Yuri Sutiagin's and Igor Seidov's 'MiG Menace Over Korea: The Story of Soviet Fighter Ace Nikolai Sutiagin' (Pen & Sword Aviation, 2009). Future books will include Svetlana Gerasimova's analysis of the prolonged and savage fighting against Army Group Center in 1942-43 to liberate the city of Rzhev, and more of Igor Seidov's studies of the Soviet side of the air war in Korea, 1951-1953.

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Most Helpful Customer Reviews
20 of 20 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars A Remarkable Book Scrupulously Researched 2 July 2013
By Dave History Student TOP 1000 REVIEWER
Format:Hardcover
This is a remarkable though select study of the initial battles of Operation Typhoon. Though demanding and requiring your full attention, an enthusiast could read this operational treasure-trove over and over and never tire of it. It was intriguing but also challenging to read about the same engagement from different perspectives; usually two sometimes three different viewpoints discussed. The commentary and analysis is superb and will give the reader a better understanding of the campaign. Though this book covers both sides, it is Russian-centric and it spends more time discussing Soviet plans, assaults and maneuvers than on the German perspective.

This very sentiment was first expressed nearly two years ago when describing "Demolishing the Myth" by Valeriy Zamulin but it also exactly describes "The Viazma Catastrophe, 1941" for the two books and authors have many comparable attributes: both authors spent many years researching, verifying material and writing their books; both researchers had access to material not readily available to the public; both authors have a firm grasp of tactics and can express battlefield operations succinctly as well as analyze the results of those battlefield actions. Both authors can also empathize with the key commanders and can describe accurately the thoughts and motives of those commanders as they prosecute the battle; they also have the ability to hunt down and assemble material from different sources describing the same event or happenstance, allowing the reader to have a more well rounded experience. Both books were also translated by the same person, Stuart Britton, and he did a marvelous job of converting a complex Russian text into an enjoyable, understandable English narrative.
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Amazon.com: 5.0 out of 5 stars  10 reviews
50 of 52 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars A Remarkable Book Scrupulously Researched 2 July 2013
By Dave Schranck - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
This is a remarkable though select study of the initial battles of Operation Typhoon. Though demanding and requiring your full attention, an enthusiast could read this operational treasure-trove over and over and never tire of it. It was intriguing but also challenging to read about the same engagement from different perspectives; usually two sometimes three different viewpoints discussed. The commentary and analysis is superb and will give the reader a better understanding of the campaign. Though this book covers both sides, it is Russian-centric and it spends more time discussing Soviet plans, assaults and maneuvers than on the German perspective.

This very sentiment was first expressed nearly two years ago when describing "Demolishing the Myth" by Valeriy Zamulin but it also exactly describes "The Viazma Catastrophe, 1941" for the two books and authors have many comparable attributes: both authors spent many years researching, verifying material and writing their books; both researchers had access to material not readily available to the public; both authors have a firm grasp of tactics and can express battlefield operations succinctly as well as analyze the results of those battlefield actions. Both authors can also empathize with the key commanders and can describe accurately the thoughts and motives of those commanders as they prosecute the battle; they also have the ability to hunt down and assemble material from different sources describing the same event or happenstance, allowing the reader to have a more well rounded experience. Both books were also translated by the same person, Stuart Britton, and he did a marvelous job of converting a complex Russian text into an enjoyable, understandable English narrative.

The book begins not in October but on June 22nd with the invasion of the Soviet Union. This brief overview describes the strategic advantages the Germans had at the beginning and garnered over the first few days of the invasion. It also covers the unpreparedness of the Red army and its front line defenses as well as the inability to cope with the scale and voracity of the attack all along the line, even if they were better prepared. Coverage then jumps to August where the Soviets begin to slow the Germans along the Dukhovshchina-Elina line with a number of fanatical counter-attacks, culminating in reducing the Elnia salient.

With the stage set, Chapter three begins the actual coverage of Operation Typhoon when Guderian's 2nd PzG launches in the last days of September in the general northeast direction between Briansk and Orel against the tired Bryansk Front commanded by General Eremenko. In the opening pages of this chapter, the disposition of enemy forces are disclosed with intended objectives enumerated. Colonel Lopukhovsky, using primary records of both sides then recreates the move by move process by which German armored spearheads smash through Soviet lines, foiling every major attempt of Eremenko in stopping the blitzkrieg. An explanation is provided for practically every decision and order covered. This format is seen throughout the entire book. The coverage is so good, so personal that you get a true feeling how desperate Eremenko felt when he had to deliver a situation report to Stalin, lying to save himself from execution.
Interjecting excerpts from war and personal diaries, orders, communiques and phone conversations the author supports his commentary as well as making the story more interesting. This empathy lasts throughout the remaining nearly 350 pages of the campaign as the pockets at Viazma and Briansk are erected and the trapped men fight fanatically for their survival. It was in a Viazma pocket that the author lost his dad and was the primary motive for researching this campaign; this campaign was very personal to the author and it shows.

In the closing pages of the book a discussion is made of the human costs of the initial weeks of this campaign to the Soviets. The calculations are dizzying and the results an not 100% conclusive but latest estimates are that even with as many as 200,000 soldiers avoiding entrapment that approximately 900,000 Soviets were killed, wounded or imprisoned. German casualties are then discussed; while the numbers are much less, they're still considerable. The author then extends his thinking on how these huge losses impacted the fighting closer to Moscow in November and how the Soviets were able to go on the offensive in early December.

In addition to the excellent narrative, the author provides an excellent map set that includes 19 well chosen tactical color maps that are chronologically displayed. The first maps include the difficult fighting along the Smolensk line of August and the counter-attack of the Elnia salient. The remaining maps cover the key attack sectors of Operation Typhoon through mid October. The maps support the text well and add considerably to the overall value of the book. The author includes map pointers to allow the reader to quickly find the right map though this feature could have been more liberally used. I personally would have liked to have seen one additional map. It would be a topographical map that was heavily populated with towns and villages; this map would aid the reader in following the battle action better when the combatants were fighting through small towns. There were a few instances where the capture of small towns were discussed but couldn't be followed easily because they were missing from the maps. I admit my obsession to this mapping feature; it shouldn't be a major problem for most readers.

Besides the maps a photo gallery of nearly 60 photos shows key officers as well as some battle scenes.
Another useful feature in addition to the seven tables running throughout the narrative is a 20 part Appendix that includes comparative strengths of different categories, various losses sustained as well as key documents and orders pertinent to this campaign. There is also a German Unit Organization description but no Order of Battle.
The book closes with a competent Notes Section, Bibliography and Index.

For anybody who likes to read a detailed operational study on the order of a Glantz or Zamulin presentation then this book should definitely be considered. In fact this book would be the perfect extension to David Glantz's two volume set, "Barbarossa Derailed" for it takes up where Barbarossa ends. Its a great read, highly detailed and highly recommended.
27 of 27 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The Viaz'ma Catastrophe 23 Aug 2013
By T. Kunikov - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
"The Viaz'ma Catastrophe" by Lev Lopukhovsky makes for an important contribution to our overall knowledge of the Eastern Front, specifically the operations that occurred in 1941, and helps to contextualize the dense amount of information that scholars and laymen need to keep in mind when referring to the victories the Germans achieved and the defeats the Soviets suffered through. Although the main concentration is on the Red Army, there are numerous reports and orders from the point of view of the Wehrmacht - thus the reader is presented with two points of view, not just one. Aiding in explaining the events of 1941, and more specifically Operation Typhoon, are the close to two dozen color maps, which go a long way in helping readers keep track of the numerous engagements that were simultaneously unfolding.

For those familiar with David Glantz's style and breadth of coverage, you can expect something similar here. But Glantz's limited ability to incorporate Russian archival research is what sets Lopukhovsky apart. Readers should be prepared for the recounting of numerous units, from both the German and Soviet side, as well as a dense narrative that tries to ascertain and explain how the initial lunge by the Germans during Operation Typhoon proved so successful against a Red Army that had been more or less stable in its positions opposite Army Group Center since the Smolensk encirclement.

Lopukhovsky, whose father, an officer in the 120th Howitzer Artillery Regiment, disappeared around Viaz'ma, set himself the task of finding out not only the circumstances of his father's disappearance but more so how the Germans achieved such a huge victory months after the surprise of their initial invasion had worn off. "Surprise" is often the catch-all term Soviet studies, and many current Russian accounts of the war, use to explain and justify German victories and Soviet defeats and retreats. While "surprise" works on many levels (tactical, operational, strategic, political, etc.) it does not last for months. Thus, in analyzing in minute detail the German beginning of Operation Typhoon and the Soviet reaction, Lopukhovsky offers a more detailed and nuanced explanation for the conditions through which the encirclement at Viaz'ma, and to an extent neighboring Briansk, was created than previous studies have offered. While a large obstacle still remains in the form of still classified Soviet-era files in the archives, which leads to Lopukhovsky having to entertain his own ideas from time to time, the final product in the form of "The Viaz'ma Catastrophe" goes a long way in helping to explain the numerous reasons why the Red Army continually failed to halt German offensives up through October of 1941.

Aside from pointing out the weaknesses of the Red Army on the eve of the war, some of which persisted through 1941 and set the stage for German advances, another aspect Lopukhovsky concentrates on is the constant attempts to break out of the encirclement made by Red Army forces. Whether breaking up into small groups and seeking to infiltrate through weaknesses in the German ring or coalescing into larger groups, made up of the remnants of numerous formations, Red Army forces continually attempted to fulfill their orders to the letter even if it meant desperate, headlong attacks against German forces who enjoyed air superiority and the ability to call on support from artillery and tanks. Although grievous losses were sustained, Soviet forces never missed a chance to undermine the German war effort from the rear by attacking targets of opportunity wherever they might encounter them - in one case, destroying communications equipment from a panzer group's signal regiment.

The last chapter is devoted to the losses sustained by the Red Army not only in 1941 but throughout the war in general. Lopukhovsky shows clear evidence that losses were undercounted or simply not reported at all, an understandable phenomenon when considering the situation many units found themselves in throughout 1941 - encircled and without communication to higher headquarters. Unfortunately, the true figures will never be known due to many reasons, such as double counting of casualties, soldiers and civilians that were counted as prisoners by the Germans who escaped and rejoined Red Army forces, etc. There is no doubt that keeping the number of casualties as they are today walks a fine line between representing Red Army sacrifice and courage while keeping a history of the Soviet war effort so many have become familiar with. To begin to round up those numbers will only raise questions about the competence and abilities of not only the Soviet government, but its commanders and soldiers themselves. This is something today's Russia wants to avoid as it continues to cling to the victory of the Great Patriotic War, with all the sacrifice offered by Soviet soldiers and civilians, as a, if not the, cornerstone of its history and memory today.

Finally, my biggest issue was the length of the main text (450 pages) within this volume. As factually rich as this study is, there were numerous instances when information could have been put into the endnotes so as not clog up the readability of the narrative; this includes both references to numbers of weapons, German and Soviet orders and reports that did not have to be cited in full, and various tangents the author goes off on. Although the aforementioned, and then some, all deserve to be discussed, they bog the reader down and take away from the flow of the overall narrative; being forced to acknowledge so many facts all at once makes for a more difficult than enjoyable reading experience, even for those who are intimately familiar with this time period and the events in question.
29 of 30 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars What really happened in October 1941 19 Aug 2013
By Bill Walsh - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
The author, in trying to ascertain what happened to his father, has written a masterful account of Operation Typhoon from the Soviet side. He provides Glantz like coverage of the Soviet response to the German offensive but in a detailed narrative style. He includes numerous excerpts from Soviet and German documents that highlight the factors that caused what truly was a catastrophe for the Soviets. Lack of timely communications and often misleading if not outright fabrications in what was communicated handicapped the Soviet responses. The messenger could end up being shot! The high command also dithered in making decisions and was handicapped by Stalin's aversion to any talk of retreat. Preparatory planning was minimal and the Soviets misjudged where the German initial attacks would likely occur and the force with which they would be mounted. As with most East Front accounts more maps would be helpful but the ones provided are at least quite legible. This is not a casual read. There are many unit action descriptions and the scale of the operations is simply enormous. The author candidly discusses where he is making assumptions because pertinent files were still closed. An argument throughout the book is that the Russian people ought to know the truth about the enormous losses incurred and why they happened. Previous histories do not provide any such coverage and he provides examples as well as challenging statements in Konev and Zhukov memoirs. The book closes with a discussion of exactly how bad were the losses and the author's and others' assessments that they were significantly larger than what has been previously written. I enjoyed the book and will be interested in the assessment of experts on the Eastern Front.
16 of 16 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Magisterial account 21 Nov 2013
By F. Carol Sabin - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
It is really a great and important tome to the literature of Eastern Front. In addition to learning a lot, I was also enjoying the book. Never before has a work on this subject been presented so thoroughly from a Russian author, based on original research, including archival documents and exhaustive studies of the pertinent primary and secondary literature.

But it is the author’s exploration of human dimension of combat and his long-lasting search for his father’s fate that truly distinguishes this book. He offers expert perspective on strategy and tactics at different levels and re-creates every aspect of this dramatic struggle. This study provides comprehensive coverage of the operational events before, during Typhoon, and even a little bit after the last moments of this operation. Besides land operations, even the air situation is adequately covered almost in all chapters.

Once again, as in the case of Mrs. Gherasimova’s book (“Rzhev slaughterhouse”), the author included critical analysis of his personal struggle with official historians about revealing the true extent of Russian losses during this battle and the results of some inept decisions. Necessarily the tome extends beyond the limits of the book’s subject and the author mentioned the serious obstacles that accompanied his 40-plus years of research.

Obviously, Mr. Lopukhovsky is a good and meticulously researcher. But I would remiss if, in praising this book, I also do not point out a few minor shortcomings. The first observations refer to comparative tables between Soviet tank and German panzer Division (useless in my opinion since both sides fought with depleted units most of the war) and available tanks in the Panzer groups of AGC for Operation Typhoon (which shows the operational tanks on September 9, 1941!), thus long before the initiation of Typhoon (and even before the completion of Kiev battle).

I doubt the part with German strength – over 1,9 million, since it included many irrelevant personnel and the figures for tanks (over 1700, the highest estimate that I found in all books) and aircraft. Between 1-20 October 1941, the Germans suffered minor casualties (57.000 troops but for the whole operation they lost 145.000 troops) and therefore could have little impact on subsequent combat actions if such figure was correct. This subject is intriguing and raised controversial questions at least in the last books dedicated to this operation (Zetterling/Anders, Stahel). On the other hand, the book doesn’t say very much about the Soviet reinforcements during the battle - estimated at over 250.000 troops in some books, plus tanks.

These shortcomings aside, due to its enormous coverage, this work has set the standard for information about Operation Typhoon at least for the Russian side.
Finally, in the conclusion chapter (part 7:“The dimensions of the defeat”), the author accuses the USSR leadership of the catastrophe at Viazma and Briansk; moreover, they are also responsible for his father’s death. Not spared for criticism are also those tasked with archives and history officials responsible with editing some controversial books (among them G.F. Krivosheev) and “political orders”. Moreover, in this chapter, full of casualty figures, the author detailed and provide a complete synthesis of recent revelations about Soviet losses in this operation and others.

Besides an extensive text (8 chapters, averaging 50-60 pages apiece), the book’s strength is its 19 color maps (some from D. Glantz’s Atlas) that provide a remarkably detailed guide to the combat operations, complemented by 66 nice photos, 20 appendices, 7 tables and the usual notes and index section.

Carefully researched, detailed and vividly illustrated (plus again the fine translation of S. Britton) this book is a groundbreaking survey which is likely to set a new standard for future studies of operational combat on Eastern Front. I am sure anyone who read this book will enjoy doing so. Highly recommended!
7 of 7 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Happycustomer 1 Oct 2013
By avidreader - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
I really enjoyed this book.I have read several books about the Eastern Front by David Glantz and George Nipe. I was impressed with this authors research and enjoyed reading about this particular battle in such detail.
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