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Bicycles & Tricycles: A Classic Treatise on Their Design and Construction (Dover Transportation) [Paperback]

Archibald Sharp
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Table of Contents

PART I PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICS CHAPTER I FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTIONS OF MECHANICS Division of the Subject. Space. Time. Matter. "CHAPTER II SPEED, RATE OF CHANGE OF SPEED, VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE, MOMENTUM" Speed. Uniform Speed. Angular Speed. Relation between Linear and Angular Speeds. Variable Speed. Velocity. Rate of Change of Speed. Rate of Change of Angular Speed. Acceleration. Force. Momentum. Impulse. "Moments of Force, of Momentum, &c.." CHAPTER III KINEMATICS : ADDITION OF VELOCITIES "Graphic Representation of Velocity, Acceleration, &c.." Addition of Velocities. Relative Velocity. Parallelogram of Velocities. Velocity of Point on a Rolling Wheel. Resolution of Velocities. Addition and Resolution of Accelerations. Hodograph. Uniform Circular Motion. CHAPTER IV KINEMATICS : PLANE MOTION Definition of Plane Motion. General Plane Motion of a Rigid Body. Instantaneous Centre. "Point-paths, Cycloidal Link Mechanisms." Speed of Knee-joint when pedalling a Crank Simple Harmonic Motion. Resultant Plane Motion. Simple Cases of Relative Motion of two Bodies in Contact. Combined Rolling and Rubbing. CHAPTER V KINEMATICS : MOTION IN THREE DIMENSIONS Resultant of Translations. Resultant of two Rotations about Intersecting Axes. Resultant of two Rotations about Non-intersecting Axes. Most General Motion of a Rigid Body. Most General Motion of two Bodies in Contact. CHAPTER VI STATICS Graphic Representation of Force. Parallelogram of Forces. Triangle of Forces. Polygon of Forces. Resultant of any number of Co-planar Forces. Resolution of Forces. Parallel Forces. Mass-centre. Couples. "Stabe, Unstable, and Neutral Equilibrium." Resultant of any System of Forces. CHAPTER VII DYNAMICS : GENERAL PRINCIPLES Laws of Motion. Centrifugal Force. Work. Power. Kinetic Energy. Potential Energy. Conservation of Energy. Frictional Resistance. Heat. CHAPTER VIII DYNAMICS (continued) Dynamics of a Particle. Circular Motion of a Particle. Rotation of a Lamina about a fixed axis perpendicular to its Plane. Pressure on the Fixed Axis. Dynamics of a Rigid Body. Starting in a Cycle Race. Impact and Collision. Gyroscope. Dynamics of any system of Bodies. CHAPTER IX FRICTION Smooth and Rough Bodies. Friction of Rest. Coefficient of Friction. Journal Friction. Collar Friction. Pivot Friction. Rolling Friction. CHAPTER X STRAINING ACTIONS : TENSION AND COMPRESSION Action and Reaction. Stress and Strain. Elasticity. Work done in stretching a Bar. Framed Structures. Thin Tubes subjected to Internal Pressure. CHAPTER XI STRAINING ACTIONS : BENDING Introductory. Shearing-force. Bending-moment. Simple Example of Beams. Beam supporting a number of Loads. Nature of Bending Stresses. Position of Neutral Axis. Moment of Inertia of an Area. Moment of Bending Resistance. Modulus of Bending Resistance of a Section. Beams of Uniform Strength. Modulus of Bending Resistance of Circular Tubes. Oval Tubes. D Tubes. Square and Rectangular Tubes. "CHAPTER XII SHEARING, TORSION, AND COMPOUND STRAINING ACTION" Compression. Compression or Tension combined with Bending. Columns. Limiting Load on Long Columns. Gordon's Formula for Columns. Shearing Torsion. Torsion of a Solid Bar. Torsion of Thick Tubes. Lines of Direct Tension and Compression on a Bar subject to Torsion. Compound Stress. Bending and Twisting of a Shaft. CHAPTER XIII STRENGTH OF MATERIALS Stress : Breaking and Working. Elastic Limit. Stress-strain Diagram. Mild Steel and Wrought Iron. Tool Steel. Cast Iron. Copper. Alloys of Copper. Aluminium. Wood. Raising of the Elastic Limit. Complete Stress-strain Diagram. Work done in breaking a Bar. Mechanical Treatment of Metals. Repeated Stress. PART II CYCLES IN GENERAL CHAPTER XIV DEVELOPMENT OF CYCLES : THE BICYCLE Introduction. The Dandyhorse. Early Bicycles. The ' Ordinary.' The ' Xtraordinary.' The ' Facile.' The ' Kangaroo.' The Rear-driving Safety. The ' Geared Facile.' The Diamond-frame Rear-driving Safety. The Rational Ordinary.' The ' Geared Ordinary ' and Front-driving Safety. The ' Giraffe ' and ' Rover Cob.' Pneumatic Tyres. Gear-cases. Tandem Bicycles. CHAPTER XV DEVELOPMENT OF CYCLES : THE TRICYLE Early Tricycles. Tricycles with Differential Gear. Modern Single-driving Tricycles. Tandem Tricycles. Sociables. Convertible Tricycles. Quadricycles. CHAPTER XVI CLASSIFICATION OF CYCLES Stable and Unstable Equilibrium. Method of Steering. Bicycles : Front-drivers. Bicycles : Rear-drivers. Tricycles. Front-steering Front-driving Tricycles. Front-steering Rear-driving Tricycles. Rear-steering Front-driving Tricycles. Quadricycles. Multicycles. CHAPTER XVII STABILITY OF CYCLES Stability of Tricycles. Stability of Quadricycles. Balancing on a Bicycle. Balancing on the ' Otto ' Dicycle. Wheel Load in Cycles whe Pedal-clutch Mechanism. Diagrams of Crank Effort. Actual Pressure on Pedals. Pedalling. Manumotive Cycles. Auxiliary Hand-Power Mechanisms. PART III DETAILS CHAPTER XXII THE FRAME : DESCRIPTIVE Frames in General. Frames of Front-drivers. Frames of Rear-drivers Frames of Ladies' Safeties. Tandem Frames. Tricycle Frames. Spring frames. The Front-frame. CHAPTER XXIII THE FRAME : STRESSES Frames of Front-drivers. Rear-driving Safety Frame. Ideal Braced Safety Frame. Humber Diamond Frame. Diamond-frame with no Bending on Frame Tubes. Open Diamond-frame. Cross-frame. Frame of Ladies' Safety. Curved Tubes. Influence of Saddle Adjustment. Influence of Chain Adjustment. Influence of Pedal Pressure. Influence of Pull of Chain on Chain-struts. Tandem Bicycle Frames. Stresses on Tricycle Frames. The Front-frame. General Considerations Relating to Design of Frame. CHAPTER XXIV WHEELS Introductory. Compression-spoke Wheels. Tension-spoke Wheels. Initial Compression on Rim. Direct-spoke Driving-Wheel. Tangent-spoke Wheel. Direct-spokes. Tangent-spokes. Sharp's Tangent Wheel. Spread of Spokes. Disc Wheels. Nipples. Rims. Hubs. Spindles. Spring Wheels. CHAPTER XXV BEARINGS Definition of Bearings. "Journals, Pivot and Collar Bearings." Conical Bearings. Roller-bearings. Ball-bearings. Thrust Bearings with Rollers. Adjustable Ball-bearing for Cycles. Motion of Ball in Bearing. Magnitudes of the Rolling and Spinning of the Balls on their Paths. Ideal Ball-bearing. Mutual Rubbing of Balls in the Bearing. Meneely ' Tubular Bearing. Ball-bearing for Tricycle Axle. Ordinary Ball Thrust Bearing. Dust-proof Bearings. Oil-retaining Bearings. Crushing Pressure on Balls. Wear of Ball-bearings. Spherical Ball-races. Universal Ball-bearing. CHAPTER XXVI CHAINS AND CHAIN GEARING Transmission of Power by Flexible Bands. Early Tricycle Chain. Humber Chain. Roller Chain. Pivot Chain. Roller Chain-wheel. Humber Chain-wheel. "Side clearance, and Stretching of Chain." Rubbing and Wear of Chain and Teeth. Common Faults in Design of Chain-wheels. Summary of Conditions determining the Proper Form of Chain-wheels. Form of Section of Wheel Blanks. Design of Side-plates of Chain. Rivets. "Width of Chain, and Bearing Pressure on Rivets." Speed-ratio of Two Shafts connected by Chain Gearing. Size of Chain-wheels. Spring Chain-wheel. Elliptical Chain-wheel. Friction of Chain Gearing. Gear-case. Comparison of Different Forms of Chain. Chain-tightening Gear. CHAPTER XXVII TOOTHED-WHEEL GEARING Transmission by Smooth Rollers. Friction Gearing. Toothed-wheels. Train of Wheels. Epicyclic Train. Teeth of Wheels. Relative Motion of Toothed - wheels. Involute Teeth. Cycloidal Teeth. Arcs of Approach and Recess. Friction of Toothed-wheels. Circular Wheel-teeth. Choice of Tooth Form. Front-driving Gears. Toothed-wheel Rear-driving Gears. Compound Driving Gears. Variable Speed Gears. CHAPTER XXVIII LEVER-AND-CRANK GEAR Introductory. Speed of Knee-joint with ' Facile ' Gear. Pedal and Knee-joint Speeds with ' Xtraordinary ' Gear. Pedal and Knee-joint Speeds with ' Geared Facile ' Mechanism. Pedal and Knee-joint Speeds with ' Geared Claviger ' Mechanism. Facile ' Bicycle. Xtra-ordinary.' Claviger Bicycles. Early Tricycles. CHAPTER XXIX TYRES Definition. Rolling Resistance on Smooth Surface. Metal Tyre on Soft Road. Loss of Energy by Vibration. Rubber Tyres. Pneumatic Tyres in General. Air-tube. Outer-cover. Classification of Pneumatic Tyres. Tubular Tyres. Interlocking Tyres. Wire-held Tyres. "Devices for Preventing, and Minimising the Effect of Punctures." Non-slipping Covers. Pumps and Valves. "CHAPTER XXX PEDALS, CRANKS, AND BOTTOM BRACKETS" Pedals. Pedal-pins. Cranks. Crank-axles. Crank-brackets. Pressure on Crank-axle Bearings. CHAPTER XXXI SPRINGS AND SADDLES Spring under the Action of suddenly applied Load. Spring Supporting Wheel. Saddle Springs. Cylindrical Spiral Springs. Flat Springs. Saddles. Pneumatic Saddles. CHAPTER XXXII BRAKES Brake Resistance on the Level. Brake Resistance Down-hill. Tyre and Rim Brakes. Band Brakes. INDEX

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