About the Author
Manning Marable is one of America's most influential and widely read scholars. Since 1993, he has been Professor of Public Affairs, Political Science, History and African-American Studies at Columbia University. From 1993 to 2003, he was founding director of the Institute for Research in African-American Studies at Columbia University. Russell Rickford is an Assistant Professor of History at Dartmouth University. He is the author of a biography of Dr Betty Shabazz, Malcolm X's wife.